Amir Heshmati: Frankfurt School: Civil Society and the Public Sphere

28 اسفند ماه 1393 - 24 : 00

Frankfurt School: Civil Society and the Public Sphere

Amir Heshmati[1]

[1] . Ph.D student of international relations. Iran. Kermanshah.     Email:


Frankfurt School is considered as one of the most critical and emancipatory theories of international relations. This theory, criticizing domination of legal and instrumental rationality, seeks to create a new definition of the universe based on the forgotten dimension. Through investigating trans-theoretical discussions, considering ideas of the school thinkers in a descriptive-analytical framework, and using data and historical documents, the present study sought to answer these questions that what are the characteristics of the public sphere of the Frankfurt School? And is there any relationship between civil society and the public sphere? While, in the viewpoint of Frankfurt School, independence of civil society has been questioned, it seems that the requirement of formation of the public sphere is achieving civil society. In this regard, the necessity of paying attention to forgotten cultures and developing global economy based on fair participation is introduced as an inevitable principle for building a global civil society. The emergence of a Frankfurtian public sphere is aimed at redefining the structure and this process requires a more flexible rules to facilitate participation of forgotten identities.